Several months ago I watched a BBC documentary series by Oxford professor Diarmaid MacCulloch, called A History of Christianity. In the first DVD, MacCulloch travels to China and discusses, on site in Xian, the existence of a Christian community that flourished there in the seventh century, and contributed greatly to the faith.
The fact that Christianity had taken root in China as early as the 600s was news to me. Of course I had always known that Christianity started in Asia, but when I reflect on its origins, I tend to follow the strand that traveled straight from the Near East to Rome, forgetting that Christianity also spread out in other directions and developed unique forms among those cultures in which it landed. The European Christianity out of which American Christianity grew is only one of many Christian traditions that span the globe, and by no means the “truest” or most authoritative version, even though it wields the most power.
After viewing the documentary, I wanted to find out more about how Christianity came to China, and especially about the so-called “Jesus Sutras” on which the early Chinese Christians based their understanding of Christ. My main source of information is Martin Palmer’s book The Jesus Sutras: Rediscovering the Lost Scrolls of Taoist Christianity.
The Jesus Sutras, in a nutshell, are a set of eight Chinese scrolls from the seventh and eighth centuries that combine the teachings of Jesus with the principles of Eastern thought. They are based on the second-century Syriac text Teachings of the Apostles, which Persian missionaries brought to China around 635 AD and translated into Chinese, with the financial support of the emperor. But rather than doing a straight translation, the missionaries incorporated elements of Taoist and Buddhist spirituality, which they had learned from the people they had met along their 3,000-mile Silk Road journey. They wanted to share Jesus with the Chinese, but they wanted to place him in a context that they would understand and appreciate.
Palmer puts it this way:
Instead of doing what many missionaries have tried to do—namely, make people adapt to a Western mind-set of original sin and the classic death-resurrection model—these teachings take seriously the spiritual concerns of China and offer Jesus and his teachings as a solution to these issues. These Sutras enter directly into the challenge of the Chinese worldview, bringing salvation to the people rather than trying to reconfigure their entire worldview. (175)
This sort of spiritual fusion raises many questions. Namely, is the gospel of Jesus being compromised so that it can fit into a framework that’s already in place? How can the canonical Christian scriptures, which grew out of Hebraic and Greco-Roman cultural contexts, apply to people of different times, places, and backgrounds? Should doctrine be fixed or fluid? Where’s the line between contextualization and syncretism?
The translation of Christian scriptures into Chinese for the first time posed a challenge for the translators, seeing as the Chinese believed in karma rather than sin, and in reincarnation rather than heaven or hell. They weren’t asking, as Western theology presupposes, “How can I be freed from sin?” Instead, they viewed desire as their main enslaver, and sought release from the endless cycle of suffering it causes. The Persians, in their translation work, did make an effort to explain the concept of a triune God, and what separates man from said God (sin), and why the death of the second person of the Godhead was necessary (atonement), but they also addressed the existential concerns of the Chinese, answering questions that Westerners don’t think to ask. The Sutras present Jesus as a savior—not only a savior from sin but from the hopelessness of perpetual existence in this world.
Here’s a timeline that breaks down the relevant chronology. I’ve set some key names and places in boldface:
- 635: A small band of Persian missionaries, led by the monk Aluoben, arrive at the Tang dynasty capital Xian.
- 638: Emperor Taizong builds a translation center for the Christian delegation, who immediately sets to work “translating” (adapting) the scriptures they brought into Chinese. Four different manuscripts are produced.
- 640: The first Christian monastery is built in China, referred to in historical writings as the Da Qin (“of the West”) monastery.
- 720: Chinese monks start writing their own Christian sutras, which have a liturgical focus.
- 752: The Church in China is now essentially cut off from its Mother Church in Persia, due to Muslim control over old travel routes.
- 781: The Stone Sutra Stele is erected to celebrate the building of the Da Qin pagoda. The Chinese Church is now well-established and widespread, and still imperially supported.
- 795: Persecution begins under the Taoist/Confucian bureaucracy.
- 841-845: The Chinese Court dissolves all Christian monasteries so that it can confiscate their land and wealth. An imperial edict orders this action on the grounds that this new religion “adulterate[s] the customs of China.”
- 1005: The Jesus Sutras are sealed up in a cave at Dunhuang, 1,000 miles west of Xian.
- 1623: The Stone Sutra Stele is discovered by gravediggers. The stele contains a 150-year history of Christianity in China, from its beginnings in 635.
- 1907: The cave at Dunhuang is rediscovered and its contents scattered by Western explorers and Chinese antiquity robbers.
- 1920s: The Jesus Sutras are purchased by Japanese and European collectors from antique dealers in and around Beijing.
- 1998: The still-intact Da Qin Pagoda is discovered by Martin Palmer and his team of researchers. Inside are statues, underground passageways, and artifacts that give insight into the era and rituals of the early Chinese Christians.
- 2001: The Jesus Sutras, written by Martin Palmer, is published by Wellspring/Ballantine. To my knowledge, Palmer’s is the first English translation of the Sutras.
The Jesus Sutras are held today in private collections in France and Japan, largely inaccessible to the public. It’s a real shame that so little information can be found about them online. I’d really like to change that. The Sutras are a rich and beautiful body of spiritual writings, and I hope that you check back regularly as I delve deeper into them.
Thanks for sharing this interesting article.
Hi Victoria, I came across your blogs because I am doing some research into the Nestorian Church’s missionary engagement and relationship with other faiths. You might be interested to read A church on fire – the Nestorian Missionary Enterprise, by john stewart, which tells of their spread across Asia from Syria and Persia, and of surviving Nestorians in India. There are also other histories of the Church, but not much has been written analysing their contextual theological approach. Keep up the good work!
VERY interesting! Can’t wait till the next post!
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Please I am intrested in buying the sutras of jesus translation.From where can I buy them please so I can read them?
Ricky this is the translation by Martin Palmer, who took MacCullough to the Da Qin pagoda in the BBC TV series. There is also an old translation that is out of print by a Japanese Professor Saeki in the 1930s. Some other books are listed in Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jesus_Sutras
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Thank you for this great article… Thank you Jesus…
The “Western” concern with “original sin” and the “atonement” theology dependent on this assumption are just that: features of the Western branch of Christianity that seem self-evident as crystallized in its now dominant American form, but that only started to gel around the turn of the last millenium, making it unrecognizable to the original Eastern forms, so much so that intercommunion became impossible once the Great Schism officialized this parting of the ways in 1054. It is therefore anachronistic and even “ungeographic” to frame the Persian Church’s encounter with the Asian world in those terms. It had its own issues with the dominant Byzantine form of Eastern Christianity, whose Greek language and conceptual apparatus cause difficulties in Syriac translation, hence the schisms in that direction. But the basic tenor of Eastern Christianity remained the same in those Asian offshoots of Syriac Christianity, with a set of assumptions much closer to those of Eastern religions, and easier to translate into their categories than the juridical language of “salvation” in the Western sense. For the point of Christianity throughout the East is theosis, “deification”, meaning full participation of mortal man in the deathless Risen Life of the divine-human Logos as the uncreated Life of the Trinity without beginning or end. Sin is but alienation from that Life for which man was created -“missing the mark” as the Greek term for sin (amartia) translates, a deviation or skewering of the workings of human nature, itself inalienable as the image of God, rather than the curse and hereditary debt of “original sin” consigning all to “massa damnata” by default. It is thus more of a matter of realization of one’s true nature in God than of “salvation” as rescue from his punitive wrath; more of self-emptying (kenosis) as the fullness of that image revealed in Christ’s life and resurrection than of expiatory sacrifice for divine condemnation. If you add to this the Eastern Christian accent on a negative theology of divine unfathomability and existential paradox, this comes much closer to Asian concepts of emptiness and the path of realization of it in asceticism, compassion, and contemplation of nature’s beauty. Keeping this in mind, there would seem to be prima facie a much higher degree of mutual translatability between Persian Christianity and Chinese spirituality than this article suggests on the basis of modern Western assumptions. I am therefore very curious to learn more about these Jesus sutras.
There’s evidence that Christianity made it to China as early as the 2nd century AD.
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Thankss for posting this
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